TDS (Total Dissolved Solids) is a measure of how much dissolved solid whether organic or inorganic is present in the water. Most of the solids dissolved in water are salts, anions, cations metals, and minerals.
Dissolved salts in water will have an effect on the taste of the water. These salts enter into the water from both natural and artificial sources. TDS in water usually come from agricultural and residential runoff, soil contamination and water pollution discharge from industrial and sewage treatment plants. Also, metals like the lead and copper also can be picked up by water through the pipelines. Dissolved salts from an artificial source include nitrogen iron, minerals, and rocks.
According to the World Health Organization, when TDS level is less than 300 mg per liter the water is considered as the best. Between 300 and 600 mg per liter is still good. TDS of 600-900 mg per liter is considered fair and 900 – 1,200 is poor. If the TDS level is more than 1,200 mg per liter is unacceptable.
Water that has a TDS level of more than 1,000 mg per liter is not fit for consumption. Presence of potassium, sodium, chlorides which are not harmful increases the TDS level in the water.
However, the presence of toxic ions such as lead, nitrate, cadmium and arsenic can lead to a number of serious health problems. The presence of such toxins has a harmful effect on children because they are much more sensitive to contaminants because their defense systems have not fully developed. So you must buy water purifier or a water filter which will help in removing the toxins from the water and maintain the optimum level TDS.
Below are some of the ways through which we can reduce TDS in water:
- Reverse Osmosis (RO)
Reverse Osmosis removes TDS by forcing the water through a synthetic membrane. The membrane contains microscopic pores which will allow only smaller molecules to pass through. The molecules of dissolved metals and salts are large compared to the water molecules, so the water squeezes through the membrane leaving the metals and salts behind.
The process involves boiling water in order to produce water vapor. The water vapor rises to a cool surface which is then condensed back into the liquid form. The dissolved salts are unable to vaporize, so they remain in the boiling solution.
- Deionization (DI)
The ion selective membranes enable the positive ions to separate from the water and move towards the negative electrode. The end result is de-ionized water with high purity. But this process, the water has to first pass through an RO in an RO water purifier first in order to remove the non-ionic organic contaminants.
The best way to reduce TDS is through Reverse Osmosis process, so buy an RO Water purifier with TDS controller. It will help in keeping the water safe from harmful chemical contaminants.
You can also check the TDS level at home by using the state of the art TDS meter tester. Digital TDS meters are widely available on all the leading online stores in India, and you can easily buy it. These readings will give you a good idea as to the efficiency of your water filter or RO water purifier.